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145. Binary Tree Postorder Traversal 👍

Approach 1: Recursive

  • Time: $O(n)$
  • Space: $O(h)$
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class Solution {
 public:
  vector<int> postorderTraversal(TreeNode* root) {
    vector<int> ans;
    postorder(root, ans);
    return ans;
  }

 private:
  void postorder(TreeNode* root, vector<int>& ans) {
    if (!root)
      return;

    postorder(root->left, ans);
    postorder(root->right, ans);
    ans.push_back(root->val);
  }
};
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class Solution {
  public List<Integer> postorderTraversal(TreeNode root) {
    List<Integer> ans = new ArrayList<>();
    postorder(root, ans);
    return ans;
  }

  private void postorder(TreeNode root, List<Integer> ans) {
    if (root == null)
      return;

    postorder(root.left, ans);
    postorder(root.right, ans);
    ans.add(root.val);
  }
}
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class Solution:
  def postorderTraversal(self, root: Optional[TreeNode]) -> List[int]:
    ans = []

    def postorder(root: Optional[TreeNode]) -> None:
      if not root:
        return

      postorder(root.left)
      postorder(root.right)
      ans.append(root.val)

    postorder(root)
    return ans

Approach 2: Iterative

  • Time: $O(n)$
  • Space: $O(h)$
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class Solution {
 public:
  vector<int> postorderTraversal(TreeNode* root) {
    if (!root)
      return {};

    vector<int> ans;
    stack<TreeNode*> stack{{root}};

    while (!stack.empty()) {
      root = stack.top(), stack.pop();
      ans.push_back(root->val);
      if (root->left)
        stack.push(root->left);
      if (root->right)
        stack.push(root->right);
    }

    reverse(begin(ans), end(ans));
    return ans;
  }
};
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class Solution {
  public List<Integer> postorderTraversal(TreeNode root) {
    if (root == null)
      return new ArrayList<>();

    List<Integer> ans = new ArrayList<>();
    Deque<TreeNode> stack = new ArrayDeque<>();
    stack.push(root);

    while (!stack.isEmpty()) {
      root = stack.pop();
      ans.add(root.val);
      if (root.left != null)
        stack.push(root.left);
      if (root.right != null)
        stack.push(root.right);
    }

    Collections.reverse(ans);
    return ans;
  }
}
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class Solution:
  def postorderTraversal(self, root: Optional[TreeNode]) -> List[int]:
    if not root:
      return []

    ans = []
    stack = [root]

    while stack:
      node = stack.pop()
      ans.append(node.val)
      if node.left:
        stack.append(node.left)
      if node.right:
        stack.append(node.right)

    return ans[::-1]