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229. Majority Element II 👍

  • Time: $O(n)$
  • Space: $O(1)$
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class Solution {
 public:
  vector<int> majorityElement(vector<int>& nums) {
    vector<int> ans;
    int candidate1 = 0;
    int candidate2 = 1;   // any number different from candidate1
    int countSoFar1 = 0;  // # of candidate1 so far
    int countSoFar2 = 0;  // # of candidate2 so far

    for (const int num : nums)
      if (num == candidate1) {
        ++countSoFar1;
      } else if (num == candidate2) {
        ++countSoFar2;
      } else if (countSoFar1 == 0) {  // assign new candidate
        candidate1 = num;
        ++countSoFar1;
      } else if (countSoFar2 == 0) {  // assign new candidate
        candidate2 = num;
        ++countSoFar2;
      } else {  // meet a new number, so pair out previous counts
        --countSoFar1;
        --countSoFar2;
      }

    const int count1 = count(begin(nums), end(nums), candidate1);
    const int count2 = count(begin(nums), end(nums), candidate2);

    if (count1 > nums.size() / 3)
      ans.push_back(candidate1);
    if (count2 > nums.size() / 3)
      ans.push_back(candidate2);
    return ans;
  }
};
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class Solution {
  public List<Integer> majorityElement(int[] nums) {
    List<Integer> ans = new ArrayList<>();
    int candidate1 = 0;
    int candidate2 = 1;  // any number different from candidate1
    int countSoFar1 = 0; // # of candidate1 so far
    int countSoFar2 = 0; // # of candidate2 so far

    for (final int num : nums)
      if (num == candidate1) {
        ++countSoFar1;
      } else if (num == candidate2) {
        ++countSoFar2;
      } else if (countSoFar1 == 0) { // assign new candidate
        candidate1 = num;
        ++countSoFar1;
      } else if (countSoFar2 == 0) { // assign new candidate
        candidate2 = num;
        ++countSoFar2;
      } else { // meet a new number, so pair out previous counts
        --countSoFar1;
        --countSoFar2;
      }

    int count1 = 0;
    int count2 = 0;

    for (final int num : nums)
      if (num == candidate1)
        ++count1;
      else if (num == candidate2)
        ++count2;

    if (count1 > nums.length / 3)
      ans.add(candidate1);
    if (count2 > nums.length / 3)
      ans.add(candidate2);
    return ans;
  }
}
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class Solution:
  def majorityElement(self, nums: List[int]) -> List[int]:
    ans1 = 0
    ans2 = 1
    count1 = 0
    count2 = 0

    for num in nums:
      if num == ans1:
        count1 += 1
      elif num == ans2:
        count2 += 1
      elif count1 == 0:
        ans1 = num
        count1 = 1
      elif count2 == 0:
        ans2 = num
        count2 = 1
      else:
        count1 -= 1
        count2 -= 1

    return [ans for ans in (ans1, ans2) if nums.count(ans) > len(nums) // 3]
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