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310. Minimum Height Trees 👍

  • Time: $O(n)$
  • Space: $O(n)$
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class Solution {
 public:
  vector<int> findMinHeightTrees(int n, vector<vector<int>>& edges) {
    if (n == 1 || edges.empty())
      return {0};

    vector<int> ans;
    unordered_map<int, unordered_set<int>> graph;

    for (const vector<int>& edge : edges) {
      const int u = edge[0];
      const int v = edge[1];
      graph[u].insert(v);
      graph[v].insert(u);
    }

    for (const auto& [label, children] : graph)
      if (children.size() == 1)
        ans.push_back(label);

    while (n > 2) {
      n -= ans.size();
      vector<int> nextLeaves;
      for (const int leaf : ans) {
        const int u = *begin(graph[leaf]);
        graph[u].erase(leaf);
        if (graph[u].size() == 1)
          nextLeaves.push_back(u);
      }
      ans = nextLeaves;
    }

    return ans;
  }
};
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class Solution {
  public List<Integer> findMinHeightTrees(int n, int[][] edges) {
    if (n == 0 || edges.length == 0)
      return new ArrayList<>(Arrays.asList(0));

    List<Integer> ans = new ArrayList<>();
    Map<Integer, Set<Integer>> graph = new HashMap<>();

    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
      graph.put(i, new HashSet<>());

    for (int[] edge : edges) {
      final int u = edge[0];
      final int v = edge[1];
      graph.get(u).add(v);
      graph.get(v).add(u);
    }

    for (Map.Entry<Integer, Set<Integer>> entry : graph.entrySet()) {
      final int label = entry.getKey();
      Set<Integer> children = entry.getValue();
      if (children.size() == 1)
        ans.add(label);
    }

    while (n > 2) {
      n -= ans.size();
      List<Integer> nextLeaves = new ArrayList<>();
      for (final int leaf : ans) {
        final int u = (int) graph.get(leaf).iterator().next();
        graph.get(u).remove(leaf);
        if (graph.get(u).size() == 1)
          nextLeaves.add(u);
      }
      ans = nextLeaves;
    }

    return ans;
  }
}
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class Solution:
  def findMinHeightTrees(self, n: int, edges: List[List[int]]) -> List[int]:
    if n == 1 or not edges:
      return [0]

    ans = []
    graph = collections.defaultdict(set)

    for u, v in edges:
      graph[u].add(v)
      graph[v].add(u)

    for label, children in graph.items():
      if len(children) == 1:
        ans.append(label)

    while n > 2:
      n -= len(ans)
      nextLeaves = []
      for leaf in ans:
        u = next(iter(graph[leaf]))
        graph[u].remove(leaf)
        if len(graph[u]) == 1:
          nextLeaves.append(u)
      ans = nextLeaves

    return ans